Several automotive sensors have significantly decreased the size and expense of the MEMS technology and improved its performance dramatically.
FREMONT, CA: Automobiles have enhanced human development by effectively transporting cargo and passengers over long distances. Automobiles were initially designed by assembling the best mechanical technologies. Today, they are supported by electronic technologies. Automobiles have accomplished high performance, functionality, efficiency, and safety by using sensors, computers, and actuators to control them.
High-efficiency engines, hybrid systems, electric vehicles, and fuel cell vehicles are now being designed to decrease energy consumption and CO2 emissions. The introduction of self-driving vehicles that use artificial intelligence and internet communication technologies is anticipated. Peripheral monitoring with sensors and self-monitoring are crucial in such cases. Following in the footsteps of automobiles, the introduction of robots that assist humans is expected to contribute to human development.
Robots need several sensors, similar to those used by humans, to maintain contact with humans. It is preferable that the robot learns and interprets human emotions. This paper examines sensor technologies used in automobiles and robots.
Sensors for Automobiles
Automotive sensor overview
Automobiles contain numerous sensors. The majority of sensors are physical quantity sensors, but gas sensors are chemical quantity sensors. Temperature, pressure, position, angle, and speed are all significant physical quantities in automobiles.
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology has dramatically decreased the size and expense of automotive sensors while significantly enhancing their performance.
Combustion pressure sensor
Lean combustion is a popular to increase an engine's fuel efficiency and lower exhaust gas emissions. The combustion pressure sensor is an essential sensor for identifying the state of the combustion. The combustion pressure sensor is directly mounted on the engine and must endure the high temperatures generated by combustion.
Yaw rate sensor
For vehicle motion control, a yaw rate sensor was developed, a type of gyro sensor. The sideslip prevention system consists of vehicle stability control (VSC) and vehicle dynamics integrated management (VDIM). The system allows for preventing accidents due to vehicle spins on snowy, icy, wet, or muddy roads.
Acceleration sensors and gyro sensors are required by an inertial navigation system for autonomous driving. An entirely differential three-axis acceleration sensor was created. SOI and DRIE technologies were used to develop the sensor.
The identification of roads, buildings, cars, and people is critical in autonomous driving. External sensors that are widespread include radio detection and ranging, LIDAR, sound navigation and ranging, and cameras. The expectation for LIDAR is high because it can differentiate the shape of a person. LIDAR emits light, identifies light reflected from an object, and calculates distance based on the light's time of flight.