Significance of GIS in Environment

Applied Tech Review | Wednesday, September 08, 2021

The role of geographic information system in land use and land cover applications is that it allows determining changes in land use and land cover in various places.

FREMONT, CA: A geographic Information System (GIS) is a computer system that gathers, analyzes, saves, and disseminates geographic data for use by various entities to make more informed and efficient decisions. GIS is useful in a variety of sectors, including environmental science. Some of the benefits of GIS in the environment are listed below.

Environmental Impact Analysis (EIA)

EIA is a critical policy endeavor for conserving natural resources and the environment. Many human activities, such as the construction and operation of roadways, railroads, pipelines, radioactive waste disposal, airports, and others, have the potential to have negative environmental consequences. Environmental impact statements are typically required to include particular information about the magnitude and features of the ecological impact. The EIA may be completed effectively using GIS; by merging several GIS layers, natural aspects can be assessed.

Determination of Land Cover and Land Use

The feature that covers the barren terrain is referred to as land cover. The term ‘land use’ refers to the portion of the surface that is used for a specific purpose. The role of GIS technology in land use and land cover applications is that it allows determining changes in land use and land cover in various places. It can also detect and estimate changes in land use and land cover patterns over time. Furthermore, it enables the detection of abrupt changes in land use and cover caused by natural processes or other activities such as deforestation.

Zoning of Landslides Hazard

The assessment of landslide risk is a complex issue. The technique of rating distinct parts of an area according to the degrees of actual or potential landslide threat is known as landslide hazard zonation. It is now possible to collect, modify, and combine a range of spatial data for hazard zonation like an area's geological, surface cover, structural, and slope features.

Flood Damage Estimation

When appropriate, GIS can be used by insurance companies to help determine the monetary value of property losses and to demonstrate the need for federal disaster relief money. A local authority must map flooding risk regions to assess the flood potential in the area. The damage can be accurately estimated and visualized using digital maps.

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