Key Benefits of DNA Nanotechnology

Applied Tech Review | Wednesday, January 11, 2023

DNA Nanotechnology comes with numerous advantages in the fields of drug delivery, bioimaging, biosensing, bioanalytics, biomedicines, nanoelectronics, and nano-devices used in biomedical engineering.

FREMONT, CA: Synthetic DNA genomes are developed through DNA nanotechnology. For the controlled synthesis of artificial DNA nanostructures, DNA is used as a programmable material because of its unique chemical and structural properties. Nanostructures possess many essential properties, including programmable functions, controllable sizes, and biocompatibility. 

The field of DNA nanotechnology has consistently advanced in both computational and experimental research over the last decade. The advantages of DNA nanostructures over conventional nanomaterials include non-cytotoxicity, biocompatibility, and biodegradability. With molecular specificity, scientists can tune the surface of DNA nanostructures.

By assembling DNA nanostructures into precise shapes and sizes, DNA origami can be modified for specific biological functions. DNA origami involves folding long, single strands into the desired nanoscale shape using short-staple strands composed of unique sequences.

Future applications of DNA nanotechnology are Biosensors, bioimaging, and many computational strategies that have been developed using DNA nanotechnology. Nanotechnology, especially DNA nanotechnology, has changed the landscape of biology. DNA, for instance, is exploited beyond genetics.

There has been an overwhelming amount of digital data generated in the current information age, which must be preserved to ensure that knowledge is not lost and that the next generation can access it. Below are some of the potential applications of synthetic DNA:

The technology of the digital age: By preserving biological information of the past, DNA nanotechnology allows scientists to trace the history of evolution, identify individuals from 530-year-old remains, track the spread of disease epidemics in the past, and much more.

The transmission, processing, and storing of data have improved significantly over the past several decades. The use of DNA for storing and communicating data could be the next technological advancement in data storage and communication.

DNA possesses a 1,000,000-fold higher data storage capacity than optical and magnetic platforms. Synthetic DNA is capable of maintaining static data, according to a study. It is possible to accumulate data in DNA for hundreds of years. More than two million years after DNA was formed, digital data can be recovered. A polymerase amplification method can replicate DNA data exponentially, rapidly, and cost-effectively.

Communication through DNA: Data security is more important than speed in data communication. DNA is invisible to the naked eye, which makes it ideal for data communication. Furthermore, DNA can only be extracted by a skilled individual. As a result, DNA can be used for discreet communication with the highest levels of security. The information can be incorporated in two ways, namely as a direct sequence or as a 3D architecture of assembled DNA molecules.

In the future, DNA barcoding could be used for tracking food and agricultural produce for authentication, according to scientists. Furthermore, several studies have indicated that DNA might be able to meet future data storage needs. Research is needed to make it a cost-effective and user-friendly medium. Technology, chemical synthesis methods, and developing DNA-specific cryptography and steganography methodologies offer a wide range of opportunities for innovation.

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