Important Components of Robots

Applied Tech Review | Saturday, September 03, 2022

Robotic sensors enable the robot to determine the best course of action based on the current situation.

FREMONT, CA: Robots are built to provide solutions to various needs, requiring various specialized components to do so. Robots are usually designed to operate independently from humans in open environments without human supervision. Using sensors (usually a computer), they can perceive the world around them and then employ a decision-making structure (usually a computer) to make the most appropriate next step based on their gathered data and their mission. All robots must have several central components, like a power source or a central processing unit.

Control system

A robot's central processing unit, often referred to as its control system, consists of all the components that make up its central processing unit. The control system instructs a robot on how to use its specific components, similar to how the brain sends the signal to the human body to carry out a specific task of its specific components. Robots can perform anything from minimally invasive surgery to assembly line packaging as part of these robotic tasks.


Robots are equipped with sensors that provide them with stimuli in the form of electrical signals. These stimuli are processed by the robot's controller and allow the robot to interact with the outside environment. The sensors enable the robot to determine the most logical conclusion based on the current situation and relay commands to the additional components. Video cameras, which serve as a robot's eyes, photoresistors, which are sensors that react to light, and microphones, which serve as the robot's ears, are all examples of sensors that robots use.


Devices with movable frames and bodies are considered robots. Motors in these components receive signals from the control system and move together to perform the required movements. Pneumatic and hydraulic actuators, commonly operated with compressed air (pneumatic actuators) or oil (hydraulic actuators), often come in different formats to better fulfil their specialized functions.

Power supply

Power is required for robots to function, just like food for humans. Power supplies for robots need to consider safety, weight, replaceability, and lifecycle. Most robots, such as those in factories, are powered by batteries rather than AC power. Most robots use lead-acid batteries for their safety and long shelf life, while others may use silver-cadmium batteries for their compactness and affordability. Pneumatic power, solar power, hydraulic power, flywheel energy storage, anaerobic digestion of organic garbage, and nuclear power are potential sources for future robotic developments.

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