With advanced sensor technology and source reconstructions, MEG has proven to be a useful tool for quantifying the strength of resting-state functional connectivity in neurodegenerative diseases.
FREMONT, CA: Sensor technology has advanced at an exponential rate in recent decades. The discovery and development of electroactive polymers can be considered a watershed moment in this field. Furthermore, the combination of materials with the advancement of nanotechnology enabled the creation of miniaturised devices with superior sensing properties. Sensor technology–a device-based technology–is both fundamental and applied in a variety of interdisciplinary fields. A sensor, in more technical terms, is a device that converts an input signal from a stimulus into a readable output signal, where the input signal can be any measurable characteristic such as quantity or physical variation and the output is ultimately an electrical signal. Chemical sensors have gotten a lot of attention because they are devices that allow data collection and information gathering with minimal manipulation of the studied system, allowing the results to be analysed and correlated with other parameters in the environment in which they are placed.
The implantable sensor technology and intended use drive decisions about cost, materials, electronic components, power supplies, and hermetic seals during development. For example, it is critical to recognise that, in addition to being used for medical applications in humans, some implantable sensor systems are used to track and record the conditions of wild and domestic animals for bioresearch and habitat evaluation. A glucose sensor implanted in a human to interface with an implanted insulin pump will have different design requirements than a sensor implanted in a wild animal to collect data for a single breeding season. Sensors for wild animal tracking, for example, may be potted in biocompatible wax and thus only last a few months in the animal, but sterilisation of the system is just as important for this application as it is for humans use. Environmental challenges confront implanted sensor systems in both applications.
To detect nerve gases, acetylcholinesterase is fixed on the sensor chip, and the reaction with nerve gases lowers substrate hydrolysis velocity due to enzyme inhibition, and the resulting electric response is monitored. A fluorescent sensor based on organophosphorus hydrolase and a chemical sensor based on a nerve gas-reactive fluorescent reagent have been developed. These types of sensors are still impractical. Tyrosinase is fixed on glassy carbon to detect AC, and the inhibited activity is measured electrochemically by measuring polyphenol hydrolysis after the concentration of AC on the colloidal mineral.
Modern sensor technology has greatly improved and can now make accurate measurements in a wide range of conditions. The measurement principles, however, have not changed. When the hooves come into contact with the ground, electronic force sensors record the ground reaction forces. The sensors can be installed in a force plate device on the ground or in a shoe attached to the hoof. The force plates can provide the amplitude and orientation of the force.